Christian Reformed World Relief
Provides assistance in advocacy and rebuilding
Child Care Program
A volunteer program administered by Church of the Brethren, designated
to meet the needs of children of victims of the impacted area in Red Cross
service center and the Disaster Application Center.
DAC is the common term for a large facility with tables and chairs for
the victims and the interviewers where needs and applications for benefits
Applications can also
be given by phone through a designated (800) number. Many agencies
will be represented in the DAC.
Some of the groups that
will be present:
• Small Business Administration,
• Employment Security Administration,
• American Red Cross, and
• Cooperative Disaster Child Care Program
A natural or human-made occurrence which causes human suffering or creates
human need, as well as the opportunity for new growth.
Disaster Welfare Inquiry
A service operated by the Red Cross, usually in cooperation with Radio
Emergency Associated Communications Team.
If you have family members
in the affected area who cannot be reached, the local Red Cross chapter
can be given information and they will make inquires about a family situation.
Assists those who lost jobs or could not get to jobs because of the disaster.
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA)
If local or state funds
cannot care for all the needs of the victims, the governor of the state
makes a request to the President of the United States and, if it is approved,
a declaration is made.
FEMA staff will move into
the disaster area and relief agencies will attend to the victims needs by
setting up a DAC.
Individual Family Grant
Provides grants of up to $13,400 to survivors who do not qualify for a
Small Business Administration (SBA) loan, provided they have applied for
an SBA loan and been refused.
Local congregations working together for long-term response.
Small Business Administration
Provides loans at lower than market rate for:
• Business Rebuilding
• Personal Property Loss
• Economic Injury Disaster Loans
Actions Affecting or
Affected by Floodplains or Wetlands
Actions which have the potential to result in the long or short term impacts
associated with the following:
• the occupancy or modification
of floodplains and the direct or indirect support of floodplain development;
• the destruction and
modification of wetlands and the direct or indirect support of new construction
Actuarial Rates or
Risk Premium Rates (Insurance)
Those rates established by the Federal Insurance Administrator pursuant
to individual community studies and investigations which are undertaken
to provide flood insurance in accordance with Section 1307 of the National
Flood Insurance Act of 1968, as amended, and the accepted actuarial principles.
A structure that received damage but is usable for its intended purpose.
The Federal Emergency management Agency (FEMA)
- Resource Management
The authorization and action whereby a facility or all or some of the
total anticipated supply of a scarce and critical material, commodity, product,
service, or item is assigned or reserved for use by a specified activity
or activities during a stated time period. It permits the claimant activity
to procure a specified quantity of the particular controlled goods or services
during a stated time period.
Alluvial Fan Flooding
Flooding occurring on the surface of an alluvial fan or similar landform
which originates at the apex and is characterized by high velocity flows.
American Red Cross
A quasi-governmental agency largely for relief of suffering and welfare
activities during war and disaster. The ARC operates under a Congressional
Charter and is supported by the public. Internationally, it operates
in accordance with the Treaty of Geneva.
to a Major Disaster or Emergency)
• For public assistance means the State, local government, or eligible
private nonprofit facility submitting a project application or request for
direct Federal assistance under the Disaster Relief Act of 1974, as amended,
or on whose behalf the Governor's authorized representative takes such action;
• For individual assistance,
means an individual or family who submits an application or request for
assistance under the Act.
The head of a directorate of the Federal Emergency Management Agency who
has responsibility for a particular activity/function.
Assistance Management Systems (ADAMS)
Integrated database system providing local processing support for DAP
programs in DFO's and at permanent DAP sites. ADAMS includes separate
modules for Individual, Public, and Hazard Mitigation assistance programs,
as well as program support activities for management and coordination.
A mass of sliding snow. Avalanches usually occur in mountainous
terrain where snow is deposited on slopes of 20 degrees or more.
To eliminate a hazard through measures such as relocation or prohibition
of construction (or by other means) within an area susceptible to risk or
A flood which has 1% chance of being equalled or exceeded in any given
year (also known as a 1% annual chance flood or a 100-year flood).
This term is used in the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) to indicate
the minimum standard of protection from flooding to be used by a community
in its floodplain management regulations.
The 100-year floodplain (1% annual chance floodplain).
Any area of a building having its floor subgrade (below ground) on all
The horizontal portion of the backshore beach formed by sediments deposited
by waves. Also, earth mounded around the sides of a building to provide
barrier shielding against fallout gamma radiation.
A temporary and preliminary contract of insurance to protect the owner
against loss from the occurrence of an insurable event before a policy is
issued. The National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) does not issue
Extensive snowfall of considerable density for more than 3 hours, winds
of 32 to 44 miles per hour, and visibility of less than 1/4 mile.
Becomes a severe blizzard when winds attain 45 miles per hour, visibility
approaches zero, and temperatures drop to 10 degrees F or lower.
A wetland usually developing in a depression or lake with poor drainage.
Tree species that occur on water-saturated or regularly inundated soils.
Classified as wetland, these areas contain both trees and woody shrubs.
A vertical wall of wood, steel, concrete, or similar material normally
built parallel to the shoreline and designed to deflect waves and control
The total time, effort, and/or financial resources required to respond
to a collection of information.
A person injured and needing medical treatment or a person killed because
of manmade or natural disasters.
Professional medical help, hospital services, and ambulance services for
collecting and treating casualties.
A nonpolitical, geographical subdivision of no standard size but within
a city, town, country, or other political jurisdiction. It is used
by he U.S. Bureau of the Census as a convenient and flexible unit for surveying
and aggregating population, housing, and other demographic or economic
statistics. In most instances, a tract corresponds to a Standard Location
Chief Executive Officer
The official of the community who is charged with the authority to implement
and administer laws, ordinances, and regulation for that community.
Civil Defense (CD)
All activities and measures designed or undertaken for the following reasons:
• to minimize the effects upon the civilian population caused by, or which
would be caused by, an attack upon the United States or by a natural disaster;
• to deal with the immediate
emergency conditions which would be created by any such attack or natural
• to effectuate emergency
repairs to, or the emergency restoration of, vital utilities and facilities
destroyed or damaged by any such attack or natural disaster.
Resources that normally are not controlled by the Government. These
• food and water,
• health resources,
• industrial production
• housing and construction,
• supplies, and
• other essential resources and services.
The time period required to clear from the roadways all vehicles evacuating
in response to a hurricane situation.
The process by which all applicable performs, financial, and administrative
actions and requirements of an assistance agreement or contract are determined
to have been completed.
A clause contained in some fire policies requiring the insured to buy
insurance equal to a stated percentage of the value of the insured property
if losses are to be paid in full up to the limits of the policy. There
is no co-insurance under the NFIP.
A depositional geologic feature such as a bay barrier, tombolo, barrier
spit, or barrier island that consists of unconsolidated sedimentary materials,
is subject to wave, tidal, and wind energies, and protects landward aquatic
habitats from direct wave attack. As established by the Coastal Barrier
Resources Act of 1982, no new flood insurance coverage may be provided on
or after October 1, 1983, for any new construction or substantial improvements
of structures located on any designated undeveloped coastal barrier with
the Coastal Barrier Resources.
Coastal High Hazard
Special flood hazard areas along the coasts that have additional hazards
due to wind and wave action.
Cognizant Federal Agency
The Federal agency that owns, authorizes, regulates or is otherwise deemed
responsible for the affected facility, carrier, or cargo in a radiological
Collection of Information
The obtaining or soliciting of information by an agency from 10 or more
persons by means of identical questions, whether such collection of information
is mandatory, voluntary, or required to obtain a benefit.
A political entity which has the authority to adopt and enforce floodplain
ordinances for the area under its jurisdiction. In most cases, the
community is either an incorporated city, township or village or unincorporated
area of a county. However, certain states may have land use authorities
which vary from this situation.
An integrated approach to the management of emergency programs and activities
for all four emergency phases (mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery),
for all types of emergencies and disasters (natural, manmade, and attack),
and for all levels of government (local, State, and Federal) and the private
Withholding of underwriting information from NFIP when applying for insurance
or when making a claim.
Codes, standards, and specifications applicable to repairs, alterations,
or new construction of a facility or structure.
Insurance to cover loss to personal property or business property.
Contents must be located within an eligible building. Contents within
an eligible building which is not fully enclosed must be secured to prevent
flotation out of the building during flooding.
Connected throughout in an unbroken sequence along a boundary. For
NFIP purpose, a row of townhouses.
Continental U.S. Airborne
Reconnaissance for Damage Assessment (CARDA).
A U.S. Air Force program for airborne reconnaissance of the United States
to assess damage following a nuclear strike or catastrophic natural disaster.
Contour Line (Floodplain
A line on a map representing points of equal ground elevation. The
map is referred to as a topographic map.
A legal agreement between two or more parties. An insurance policy
is a contract.
The act of changing a policy by endorsement, adding or cancelling coverage,
or changing the policy terms.
The insurance purchased against specific losses provided under the terms
of a policy of insurance. coverage is frequently used interchangeably
with the work protection. Coverage is also used synonymously with
the work "insurance".
The application of individual and group treatment procedures which are
designed to ameliorate the mental and emotional crises and their subsequent
psychological and behavioral conditions resulting from a major disaster or
An action for which even a slight chance of flooding is too great.
The minimum floodplain of concern for critical actions is the 500-year floodplain,
i.e., critical action floodplain. Critical actions include, but are
not limited to, those which create or extend the useful life of such structures
or facilities as the following:
• Those which produce,
use, or store highly volatile, flammable explosive, toxic, or water-reactive
• Hospitals, nursing homes,
and housing for the elderly which are likely to contain occupants who may
not be sufficiently mobile to avoid the loss of life or injury during flood
and storm events;
• Emergency operation
centers or data storage centers which contain records or services that
may become lost or inoperative during flood and storm events; and
• Generating plants and
other principal points of utility lines.
The border on either a flood Hazard Boundary map (FHBM) or Flood Insurance
Rate map (FIRM) that delineates the special flood, mudslides (i.e., mudflow),
and/or flood-related erosion hazard areas and consists of a curved or contour
line that follows the topography.
The appraisal or determination of the actual effects on human, economic,
and natural resources resulting from manmade or natural disasters.
For any loss covered by insurance, the deductible is the fixed dollar
amount or percentage which is borne by the insured prior to the insurers
A provision in a Fair Access to Insurance Requirements (FAIR) Plan whereby
interim coverage for an eligible risk is deemed automatically to attach upon
the expiration of a specified period of time after an application for inspection
Any emergency or disaster-affected portion of a State which the Associate
Director, State and Local Programs and Support Directorate, has determined
is eligible for Federal assistance.
A facility or structure which, pursuant to Public Law 93-288, as amended,
received severe damage and is no longer technically or economically feasible
Any manmade change to improved or unimproved real estate, including but
not limited to buildings or other structures, mining, dredging, filling,
grading, paving, excavation, or drilling operations.
The Director of the Federal Emergency management Agency (FEMA).
An occurrence that has resulted in property damage, deaths, and/or injuries
to a community.
Measures taken before, during, or after hostile actions or natural or
manmade disasters to reduce the probability of damage, minimize its effects,
and initiate recovery.
Disaster Field Office
A FEMA office established in disaster areas and staffed with personnel
from Federal, State, and private agencies who direct and coordinate relief
Those minimum alterations or modifications to damaged facilities that
could be expected to prevent or substantially reduce future damages to the
repaired or reconstructed facility or to make it disaster resistant.
Disaster Recover Manager
The person appointed to exercise the authority of a Regional Director
for a particular emergency or major disaster.
Disaster Relief Act
A Federal statute designed to supplement the efforts of the affected States
and local governments in expediting the rendering of assistance, emergency
services, and the reconstruction and rehabilitation of devastated areas (PL
93-288), as amended.
Financial assistance and/or reemployment services to individuals unemployed
as result of a major disaster.
That portion of the premium which represents coverage already provided.
The NFIP premium is fully earned on the first day of the policy period.
The sudden motion or trembling of the ground produced by abrupt displacement
of rock masses, usually within the upper 10 to 20 miles of the Earth.
A measure of the effects of an earthquake at a particular place.
Intensity is determined from observations of an earthquake's effect on people,
structures, and the Earth's surface.
A measure of the strength of an earthquake, or the strain of energy released
by it, as calculated from the instrumental record made by the event on a
The starting date of a policy and the time at which NFIP protection begins.
A structure that has been damaged but is usable for its basic purpose.
A systematic process developed by the US Water Resources Council as a
part of the Guidelines for Implementing Executive Order 11988 - Floodplain
or Participating Community
A community for which the Federal Insurance Administrator has authorized
the sale of flood insurance under the NFIP.
Any hurricane, tornado, storm, flood, highwater, wind-driven water, tidal
wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm,
drought, fire, explosion, nuclear accident, or other natural or manmade catastrophe
in any part of the United States. Any occasion or instance for which,
in the determination of the President, Federal assistance is needed to supplement
State and local efforts and capabilities to save lives and to protect property
and public health and safety or to lessen the threat of a catastrophe in
any part of the United States.
Emergency Action Plan
A plan of action to be taken to reduce the potential for loss of life
and property damage in an area affected by disaster.
Emergency Flood Insurance
Program or Emergency Program
Implemented on an emergency basis to provide a first-layer amount of insurance
on all insurable structures before the effective date of the initial Flood
Insurance Rate Map.
The organized analysis, planning, decision making, assignment, and coordination
of available resources to the mitigation of, preparedness for, response to
or recovery from emergencies of any kind, whether from attack, manmade, or
Emergency Medical Services
A system which provides personnel, facilities, and equipment for the delivery
of medical care services under emergency conditions.
Emergency Medical Technician
A person trained to provide emergency medical care. The EMT may
or may not be involved in ambulance service.
The protected site from which civil government officials (municipal, county,
State, and Federal) exercise direction and control in an emergency.
A document that describes actions to be taken in the event of natural
disasters, technological accidents, or nuclear attack. It identifies
authorities, relationships, and the actions to be taken by whom, what, when,
and where, based on predetermined assumptions, objectives, and existing
Involves a domestic or national security emergency, up to and including
conventional or nuclear war. During this phase, response actions are
taken before, during, and after the onset of the emergency to end the emergency,
protect the public, provide critical assistance, limit damage, and reduce
the probability of secondary effects.
See Emergency Flood Insurance Program
Emergency Public Information
Information which is disseminated primarily in anticipation of an emergency
or at the actual time of an emergency and, in addition to providing information
as such, frequently directs actions, instructs, and transmits direct orders.
The FEMA group, composed of a headquarters element and a regional element,
that is deployed by the Director, FEMA, to the scene of disaster or extraordinary
situation to coordinate the overall Federal response.
A form of mass or other shelter provided for the communal care of individuals
or families forced from their homes by a major disaster or an emergency.
Emergency Support Team
The FEMA headquarters group that provides program and administrative support
to the Director, FEMA, and the senior FEMA official during the response and
recovery phases of a disaster or extraordinary situation.
Work Essential to save lives and protect property and public health and
safety or to avert or lessen the threat of a major disaster.
Any fill, structure, building, use, accessory use, or development in the
floodway or floodplain.
A request in writing to change an existing policy (e.g., an increase in
coverage, change of an insure's mailing address) or the NFIP form used to
make the request.
Any hazardous condition that might give rise to loss under an insurance
contract, but which is beyond the control of the property owner or tenant.
The point on the earth's surface located vertically above the point of
origin of an earthquake.
The process of the gradual wearing away of land masses.
All persons removed or moving from areas threatened or struck by a disaster.
That portion of the insurance contract which denies or limits coverage
to specified items and under specified circumstances.
Executive Order 10480
This order authorizes the director, FEMA, to coordinate all mobilization
activities of the executive branch of the Government.
Executive Order 11988
The Floodplain Management order that requires Federal agencies to adhere
to the 100-year base flood standard of the NFIP and ties together the need
to protect lives and property with the need to restore and preserve natural
and beneficial floodplain values.
The date on which insurance in force on a policy will end.
Home Park or Subdivision
A manufactured home park or subdivision for which the construction of
facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to
be affixed is completed before the effective date of the floodplain management
regulations adopted by a community.
Extent of Damage
The visible plan area of damage to a target element, usually expressed
in units of 1,000 square feet in detailed damage analysis and expressed in
approximate percentages in immediate-type damage assessment reports (e.g.,
50 percent structural damage).
The person appointed by the Director of FEMA to coordinate Federal assistance
in an emergency or a major disaster.
Federal Disaster Assistance
Aid to disaster victims or State and local governments by Federal agencies
under provisions of the Disaster relief Act of 1974, as amended.
Broad policy guidance for national security emergency mobilization and
planning preparedness from FEMA to Federal departments and agencies.
Federal Resource Agencies
Federal departments and agencies with emergency preparedness responsibility
for evaluating specific resources and for regulating or providing direction
on incentives to specified sectors of the economy to achieve national objectives
in emergency production, distribution, and use of resources.
Any for of loan, grant, guaranty, insurance, payment, rebate, subsidy,
disaster assistance loan or grant, or other form of direct or indirect Federal
assistance other than general or special revenue sharing or formula grant
made to States.
for Acquisition or Construction Purposes
Any form of financial assistance which is intended in whole or in part
for the acquisition, reconstruction, repair, or improvement of any publicly-
or privately-owned building or mobile home and for any machinery, equipment,
fixtures, and furnishings contained or to be contained therein, and shall
include the purchase or subsidization of mortgages or mortgage loans, that
shall exclude assistance pursuant to the Disaster Relief Act of 1974, as
amended, other than assistance under such Act in connection with a flood.
It includes only financial assistance insurable under the Standard Flood
Stationary mass fire, generally in built-up urban areas, generating strong,
in-rushing winds from all sides; the winds keep the fires from spreading
while adding fresh oxygen to increase their intensity.
Fire Suppression Assistance
Assistance authorized under Section 417, Public Law 93-288, as amended
to respond to the occurrence of a forest or grassland fire on private or
public property, which threatens such destruction as would constitute a major
disaster. Assistance is requested by the Governor, processed by the
appropriate FEMA region, and forwarded to the Director, FEMA, for further
action and decision.
The maximum amount of structural and contents insurance coverage available
under the emergency Program.
Follows a situation in which rainfall is so intense and severe and runoff
so rapid that it precludes recording and relating it to stream stages and
other information in time to forecast a flood condition.
A general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of
normally dry land areas from the following:
• Overflow of inland or
• Unusual or rapid accumulation or runoff of surface waters; and
• Mudslides/mudflows caused by accumulation of water.
Flood Elevation Determination
A determination by the Federal Insurance Administrator of the water surface
elevations of the base flood; that is , the flood level that has a 1% or
greater chance of occurrence in any given year.
Flood Elevation Study
An examination, evaluation, and determination of flood hazards and, if
appropriate, corresponding water surface elevations, or an examination, evaluation,
and determination of mudslide (i.e., mudflow) and/or flood-rated erosion
That portion of the floodplain outside of the floodway (often referred
to as "floodway Fringe").
Flood Hazard Boundary
An official map or plat of a community, for a community in the Emergency
Flood Insurance Program, issued or approved by the Federal Insurance Administrator,
on which the boundaries of the floodplain, mudslide (i.e., mudflow), and/or
flood-related erosion areas having special hazards have been drawn.
Flood Hazard Management
Encompasses all local, State, and Federal activities taken before, during,
and after a flood to reduce flood losses or in response to a flood disaster.
The insurance coverage provided under the NFIP.
Flood Insurance Claims
An office established by the NFIP to speed up the processing of flood
insurance claims after severe or widespread flooding occurs.
Flood Insurance Rate
An official map of a community on which the Federal Insurance Administrator
has delineated the area in which flood insurance may be sold under the
regular Flood Insurance Program and the actuarial rate zones applicable
to such area.
Flood Insurance Study
An examination, evaluation, and determination of flood hazards and, if
appropriate, corresponding water surface elevations or an examination, evaluation,
and determination of mudslide (i.e., mudflow)and/or flood-related erosion
Any land area susceptible to being inundated by water from any source.
Zoning ordinances, subdivision regulations, building codes, health regulations,
special purpose ordinances (such as floodplain ordinances and erosion control
ordinances), and other applications of police power. The term describes
such State and local regulations, in any combination thereof, which provide
standards for the purpose of flood damage prevention and reduction.
Using all practical means, the prevention of modification of the natural
floodplain environment or maintenance of the floodplain environment in a
condition as close as possible to its natural state.
The reestablishment of a setting or environment in which the natural functions
of the floodplain can again operate.
Those natural and beneficial attributes associated with the relatively
undisturbed state of the floodplain, including values primarily associated
with water, living, and cultural resources.
The modification of individual structures and facilities, their sites,
and their contents to protect against structural failure, to keep water out,
or to reduce effects of water entry.
Flood Protection System
Those physical structural works for which funds have been authorized,
appropriated, and expended and which have been constructed specifically
to modify flooding in order to reduce the extent of the area within a community
subject to a "special flood hazard" and to reduce the depths of associated
flooding. Such a system typically includes hurricane tidal barriers,
dams, reservoirs, levees, or dikes. These specialized flood modifying
workings are those constructed in conformance with sound engineering standards.
Area or Flood-Related Erosion Prone Area
A land area adjoining the shore of a lake or other body of water which,
due to the composition of the shoreline or bank and high water levels or
wind-driven currents, is likely to suffer flood-related erosion damage.
The operation of an overall program of corrective and preventive measures
for reducing flood-related erosion damage including, but not limited to,
emergency preparedness plans, flood-related erosion control works, and floodplain
The established gauge height within a given river which the rise in the
water reaches above surface level is defined as a flood. Generally,
the flood stage level is based on historical data and is usually set at
the level where the river begins to overflow its banks or where it reaches
a level which poses a potential hazard.
Exercise term for Federal civil readiness level, advanced alert.
The channel of a river or other watercourse and the adjacent land areas
that must be reserved in order to discharge the base flood without cumulatively
increasing the water surface elevation more than a designated height.
The lines marking the limits of floodways on Federal, State, and local
Forward Liaison Element
An element of a regional ERT team that is deployed at an early stage of
a potential or developing extraordinary situation to monitor and assess
the situation in order to make recommendations on the potential need for
an ERT deployment.
A factor of safety usually expressed in feet above a flood level for purposes
of floodplain management. "Freeboard" tends to compensate for the many
unknown factors that could contribute to flood heights greater than the
height calculated for a selected size flood and floodway conditions such
as wave action, bridge openings, and the hydrological effect of urbanization
of the watershed.
For the purposes of the NFIP, the term includes only docking and port
facilities that are necessary for the loading and unloading of cargo or
passengers and ship building and ship repair facilities; this term does
not include long-term storage or related manufacturing facilities.
The head of the legal office of FEMA.
The process of marshalling resources of Federal, State, and local governments
to carry out the tasks required to manage emergencies. It involves
bringing to the appropriate state of readiness the following leadership:
• Policy making groups
and legislative bodies;
• and supporting communications, facilities, procedures, and authorities
to manage the emergency.
activates and controls other aspects of mobilization.
The person named by the Governor in the Federal-State agreement to execute
on the behalf of the State all necessary documents for disaster assistance
and evaluate and transmit local government, eligible private/nonprivate facility,
and State agency requests for assistance to the Regional Director following
a major disaster or emergency declaration.
A living unit that has sustained minor or no damage and is safe, sanitary,
secure, and habitable.
Any cost-effective measure which will reduce the potential for damage
to a facility from a disaster event.
A tropical cyclone, formed in the atmosphere over warm ocean areas, in
which wind speeds reach 74 miles per hour or more and blow in a large spiral
around a relatively calm center or "eye". Circulation is counter-clockwise
in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere.
Imminent Peril to the
An emergency condition where immediate and possibly serious danger threatens
the public and time does not permit fully coordinated response actions.
Under these conditions, a Federal agency may act unilaterally, in conjunction
with a State or local government, to take immediate life-protecting actions
and coordinate such actions later with other Federal agencies.
Any hurricane, tornado, storm, flood, high water, wind-driven water, tidal
wave, tsunami, earthquake, volcanic eruption, landslide, mudslide, snowstorm,
drought, fire, explosion, or other catastrophe which cases damage or hardship
that may result in a Presidential declaration of a major disaster or emergency.
Incident Command System
The combination of facilities, equipment, personnel, procedures, and communications
operating within a common organizational structure with responsibility for
management of assigned resources to effectively direct and control the response
to an incident.
The time interval stated in the FEMA-State Agreement during which a disaster-causing
One who adjusts losses on behalf of the NFIP but is not an employee of
A non-Federal technical or scientific organization involved in the study
of land use planning, floodplain management, hydrology, geology, geography,
or any other related field of study concerned with flooding.
Federal assistance provided to families or individuals following a Presidentially-declared
major disaster or emergency.
Individual and Family
Federal grants made to States for the purpose of States making grants
to individuals or families who, as a result of a major disaster, are unable
to meet disaster-related necessary expenses or serious needs.
Any rating bureau or other person duly authorized and designed to perform
inspections under the Standard Flood Insurance Policy.
A potential for financial loss from a flood that a person must have before
acquiring flood insurance.
Any organization or person engaged in the business of adjusting claim
losses arising under the Standard Flood Insurance Policy.
A potential for financial loss from a flood that a person must have before
acquiring flood insurance.
Insurance to Value
The amount of coverage the insured should purchase in order to fully cover
the replacement of property.
The person purchasing the insurance policy from the NFIP.
Any property insurance company, any group of companies under common ownership
or common management, or a State or political subdivision, that qualifies
under the Self-Insurance Program approved by the cognizant Federal agency
authorized to engage in the insurance business under the laws of at least
That portion of the insurance contract which states the terms and conditions
afforded by the policy.
Joint Damage Assessment
A damage assessment by a team of Federal inspectors, and State or local
inspectors, and/or engineers viewing the impact simultaneously.
A class of phenomena associated with instability of slopes which result
in the downward and outward movement of slope-forming materials:
• artificial fills, or
• combinations of these materials.
Of or pertaining to the shore, especially of the sea; coastal.
The movement of sand by littoral (long-shore) currents in a direction
parallel to the beach along the shore.
Any county, city, village, town, district, or political subdivision of
any State, any Indian tribe or authorized tribal organization, or any Alaska
Native village or organization; and any other public entity for which a request
for assistance is made by its State or political subdivision thereof.
Lowest Floor (Insurance)
The lowest floor of the lowest enclosed area (including the basement).
An unfinished or flood resistant enclosure, usable solely for parking of
vehicles, building access, or storage in an area other than a basement is
not considered a building's lowest floor, provided that such enclosure is
not built so as to render the structure in violation of the applicable nonelevation
design requirements of Section 60.3 of NFIP regulations.
Landslide Hazard Area
An area susceptible to mudflows and other landslides that is generally
identified on the basis of geological field studies and professional judgment.
Letter of Map Amendment
A letter amending a Flood Hazard Boundary Map or a Flood Insurance Rate
Map to correct the map for a property that has been inadvertently included
in the identified Special Flood Hazard Area.
Letter of Map Revision
A letter from FEMA to a community officially revising its FHBM, FIRM,
or Flood Boundary Floodway Map. The LOMR effects changes in the boundaries
of areas of special flood hazard, floodway boundaries, base flood elevations,
and/or insurance rate zones, as a result of new, revised, or corrected
flood data being provided to or by FEMA.
A condition whereby soil undergoes continued deformation at a constant
low residual stress or with a low residual resistance; this is due to the
buildup and maintenance of high pore water pressures that reduces the effective
confining pressure to a very low value. Pore pressure buildup leading
to liquefaction may be due either to static or cyclic stress applications,
and the possibility of its occurrence will depend on the void ration or relative
density of a cohesionless soil and the confining pressure.
Map Revisions (Insurance)
The FHBM or FIRM for a community may be changed after its initial publication.
The changed map is said to be revised and will show the revision date,
but the date used to determine Pre-FIRM and post-FIRM construction is still
the initial effective date of the FIRM.
A wetland dominated by herbaceous or nonwoody plants often developing
in shallow ponds or depressions, river margins, tidal areas, and estuaries.
A single, massive fire covering a large area, usually occurring in built-up
urban districts and generally resulting from the union of many small fires.
Mean Sea Level
The average height of the sea for all stages of the tide at a locality.
A structure which has received substantial damage and will require considerable
time to repair, but is technically and economically feasible to repair.
Any flood, drought, fire, hurricane, earthquake, storm, or other catastrophe
in any part of the United States which, in the determination of the President,
causes damage of sufficient severity and magnitude to warrant major disaster
assistance above and beyond emergency services by the Federal Government;
this assistance supplements the efforts and available resources of State
and local governments and disaster relief organizations in alleviating the
damage, loss, hardship, or suffering caused thereby (PL 93-288, as amended).
Individuals and businesses buying, building, or improving property located
in special flood hazard areas within participating communities are required
to purchase flood insurance as a condition for receiving federally
related financial assistance.
a structure, transportable in one or more sections, which is built on
a permanent chassis and is designed for use with or without a permanent
foundation when attached to the required utilities.
Manufactured Home Park
A parcel (or contiguous parcels) of land divided into two or more manufactured
home lots for rent or sale.